Type: Earth Science
Vanguard is a scientific satellite to measure the Earth’s magnetic field, solar X-ray radiation and its effects on the Earth’s atmosphere and the near-Earth micrometeoroid environment.
Cape Canaveral, FL, USA
865 rockets have launched from Cape Canaveral, FL, USA.
Vanguard – Lockheed Martin
Length: 23 m
Diameter: 1.14 m
Launch Mass: 10 T
Low Earth Orbit Capacity: 9 kg
The Vanguard was manufactured by Lockheed Martin with the first launch on 1957-10-23. Vanguard has 3 successful launches and 8 failed launches with a total of 11 launches. The Vanguard rocket was intended to be the first launch vehicle the United States would use to place a satellite into orbit. Instead, the Sputnik crisis caused by the surprise launch of Sputnik 1 led the U.S., after the failure of Vanguard TV3, to quickly orbit the Explorer 1 satellite using a Juno I rocket, making Vanguard I the second successful U.S. orbital launch.
Spacecraft: Vanguard 1-3 | Parker Solar Probe
The Navy was competed with the Army to put the first American satellite into orbit. Their first two Vanguard missions failed, with the second being a highly publicized failure, as it exploded on the launchpad. They went on to put 3 satellites into orbit but did not beat the Army to be the first. Their work in space continues today largely on military satellites.