Type: Earth Science
Vanguard was an American satellite and the fourth artificial Earth orbital satellite to be launched. It was the first satellite to have solar electric power.
Cape Canaveral, FL, USA
872 rockets have launched from Cape Canaveral, FL, USA.
Vanguard – Lockheed Martin
- Family: Vanguard
- Length: 23 m
- Diameter: 1.14 m
- Launch Mass: 10 T
- Low Earth Orbit Capacity: 9 kg
The Vanguard was manufactured by Lockheed Martin with the first launch on 1957-10-23. Vanguard has 3 successful launches and 8 failed launches with a total of 11 launches. The Vanguard rocket was intended to be the first launch vehicle the United States would use to place a satellite into orbit. Instead, the Sputnik crisis caused by the surprise launch of Sputnik 1 led the U.S., after the failure of Vanguard TV3, to quickly orbit the Explorer 1 satellite using a Juno I rocket, making Vanguard I the second successful U.S. orbital launch.
US Navy – USN
- Type: Government
- Abbreviation: USN
- Founded: 1963
- Spacecraft: Vanguard 1-3 | Parker Solar Probe
- Country: USA
The Navy was competed with the Army to put the first American satellite into orbit. Their first two Vanguard missions failed, with the second being a highly publicized failure, as it exploded on the launchpad. They went on to put 3 satellites into orbit but did not beat the Army to be the first. Their work in space continues today largely on military satellites.