Soyuz T-12

Soyuz-U2

Soviet Space Program

Launch Status
Success

Crew

Vladimir Dzhanibekov

Vladimir Dzhanibekov

Commander

Status: Retired
5/13/1942 -
Nationality: Russian
Type: Government
Agency: Russian Federal Space Agency (ROSCOSMOS)

Vladimir Aleksandrovich Dzhanibekov (Russian: Владимир Александрович Джанибеков, born 13 May 1942) is a former cosmonaut who made five flights.

Dzhanibekov made five flights: Soyuz 27, Soyuz 39, Soyuz T-6, Soyuz T-12 and Soyuz T-13. In all he had spent 145 days, 15 hours and 56 minutes in space over these five missions. He had also performed two EVAs with a total time of 8 hours and 35 minutes. In 1985 he noted the effects of the tennis racket theorem, subsequently also called the Dzhanibekov effect, by showing that an object's second principal axis is unstable while in free-fall rotation.

Igor Volk

Igor Volk

Research Cosmonaut

Status: Deceased
4/12/1937 - 1/3/2017
Nationality: Russian
Type: Government
Agency: Russian Federal Space Agency (ROSCOSMOS)

Igor Petrovich Volk (Russian: Игорь Петрович Волк; Ukrainian: Ігор Петрович Волк; 12 April 1937 – 3 January 2017) was a cosmonaut and test pilot in the Soviet Union.
Igor Volk was selected as a cosmonaut on 12 July 1977 and flew as Research Cosmonaut on Soyuz T-12, the 7th expedition to Salyut 7. One goal of the mission was to test the effects of long-duration spaceflight on Volk's return flight piloting as a precursor to piloting the Space Shuttle Buran. He served as the head of cosmonaut training for the Buran program and after the project's cancellation, as a Flight Tests Deputy at the Gromov Flight Research Institute in 1995 before retiring in 1996. He previously served as President of the National Aero Club of Russia and Vice President of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. As recognition for his contributions as a test pilot and cosmonaut he was awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union on 29 July 1984.

Svetlana Savitskaya

Svetlana Savitskaya

Flight Engineer

Status: Retired
8/8/1948 -
Nationality: Russian
Type: Government
Agency: Russian Federal Space Agency (ROSCOSMOS)

Svetlana Yevgenyevna Savitskaya (Russian: Светла́на Евге́ньевна Сави́цкая; born 8 August 1948) is a retired Soviet aviator and cosmonaut who flew aboard Soyuz T-7 in 1982, becoming the second woman in space. On her 1984 mission she became the first woman to fly to space twice, and the first woman to perform a spacewalk. She set several FAI world records as a pilot.

Mission

Soyuz T-12

Type: Human Exploration

Soyuz T-12 was the seventh mission to visit the Salyut 7 space station and the second to visit the long-duration Soyuz T-10 resident crew of the station. The mission began on July 17, 1984, 17:40:54 UTC, launching Commander Vladimir Dzhanibekov, Flight Engineer Svetlana Savitskaya and Research Igor Volk into orbit. They docked with the station the next day. During their 9-day stay on the station, crew carried out various experiments, and Savitskaya became the first woman to ever perform a spacewalk. The mission concluded with a safe landing back on Earth on July 29, 1984, 12:55:30 UTC.

Location

31/6

Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of Kazakhstan

465 launches have been at this location.

31/6, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of Kazakhstan

Rocket

Soyuz-U

Length: 34.54 meters
Diameter: 2.95 meters
First Launched: December 23, 1982

The Soyuz-U2 was a Soviet, later Russian, carrier rocket. It was derived from the Soyuz-U, and a member of the R-7 family of rockets. It featured increased performance compared with the baseline Soyuz-U, due to the use of syntin propellant, as opposed to RP-1 paraffin, used on the Soyuz-U.

The Soyuz-U rocket has been launched a total of 63 times with 63 successful and 0 failed launches.

Agency

Soviet Space Program

Type: Government
Abbreviation: CCCP
Administration:
Founded: 1931
Launchers:
Spacecraft:
Country: RUS

The Soviet space program, was the national space program of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) actived from 1930s until disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991.

The Soviet Union's space program was mainly based on the cosmonautic exploration of space and the development of the expandable launch vehicles, which had been split between many design bureaus competing against each other. Over its 60-years of history, the Russian program was responsible for a number of pioneering feats and accomplishments in the human space flight, including the first intercontinental ballistic missile (R-7), first satellite (Sputnik 1), first animal in Earth orbit (the dog Laika on Sputnik 2), first human in space and Earth orbit (cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1), first woman in space and Earth orbit (cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova on Vostok 6), first spacewalk (cosmonaut Alexei Leonov on Voskhod 2), first Moon impact (Luna 2), first image of the far side of the Moon (Luna 3) and unmanned lunar soft landing (Luna 9), first space rover (Lunokhod 1), first sample of lunar soil automatically extracted and brought to Earth (Luna 16), and first space station (Salyut 1). Further notable records included the first interplanetary probes: Venera 1 and Mars 1 to fly by Venus and Mars, respectively, Venera 3 and Mars 2 to impact the respective planet surface, and Venera 7 and Mars 3 to make soft landings on these planets.

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