Soviet Space Program
First Flight: 6/24/1982
Last Flight: 9/26/1997
Jean-Loup Jacques Marie Chrétien (born 20 August 1938) is a French retired Général de Brigade (brigadier general) in the Armée de l'Air (French air force), and a former CNES spationaut. He flew on two Franco-Soviet space missions and a NASA Space Shuttle mission. Chrétien was the first Frenchman and the first western European in space.
First Flight: 1/10/1978
Last Flight: 6/6/1985
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Dzhanibekov (Russian: Владимир Александрович Джанибеков, born 13 May 1942) is a former cosmonaut who made five flights.
Dzhanibekov made five flights: Soyuz 27, Soyuz 39, Soyuz T-6, Soyuz T-12 and Soyuz T-13. In all he had spent 145 days, 15 hours and 56 minutes in space over these five missions. He had also performed two EVAs with a total time of 8 hours and 35 minutes. In 1985 he noted the effects of the tennis racket theorem, subsequently also called the Dzhanibekov effect, by showing that an object's second principal axis is unstable while in free-fall rotation.
First Flight: 6/15/1978
Last Flight: 6/24/1982
Aleksandr Sergeyevich Ivanchenkov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Иванче́нков; born 28 September 1940 ) is a retired Soviet cosmonaut who flew as Flight Engineer on Soyuz 29 and Soyuz T-6, he spent 147 days, 12 hours and 37 minutes in space.
Type: Human Exploration
Soyuz T-6 was the second mission to the Salyut 7 space station and the first to visit the long-duration Soyuz T-5 resident crew of the station. The mission began on June 24, 1982, 16:29:48 UTC, launching Commander Vladimir Dzhanibekov, Flight Engineer Aleksandr Ivanchenkov and Research Cosmonaut Jean-Loup ChrÃ©tien, the first French cosmonaut, into orbit. They docked with the station the next day. During their 7-day stay on the station, crew performed various scientific and medical experiments.
The mission concluded with a safe landing back on Earth on July 2, 1982, 14:20:40 UTC.
Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of Kazakhstan
1532 rockets have launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of Kazakhstan.
Soviet Space Program
The Soviet space program, was the national space program of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) actived from 1930s until disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991.
The Soviet Union’s space program was mainly based on the cosmonautic exploration of space and the development of the expandable launch vehicles, which had been split between many design bureaus competing against each other. Over its 60-years of history, the Russian program was responsible for a number of pioneering feats and accomplishments in the human space flight, including the first intercontinental ballistic missile (R-7), first satellite (Sputnik 1), first animal in Earth orbit (the dog Laika on Sputnik 2), first human in space and Earth orbit (cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1), first woman in space and Earth orbit (cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova on Vostok 6), first spacewalk (cosmonaut Alexei Leonov on Voskhod 2), first Moon impact (Luna 2), first image of the far side of the Moon (Luna 3) and unmanned lunar soft landing (Luna 9), first space rover (Lunokhod 1), first sample of lunar soil automatically extracted and brought to Earth (Luna 16), and first space station (Salyut 1). Further notable records included the first interplanetary probes: Venera 1 and Mars 1 to fly by Venus and Mars, respectively, Venera 3 and Mars 2 to impact the respective planet surface, and Venera 7 and Mars 3 to make soft landings on these planets.