Soviet Space Program
First Flight: 3/12/1981
Last Flight: 6/7/1988
Viktor Petrovich Savinykh was born in Berezkiny, Kirov Oblast, Russian SFSR on March 7, 1940. Married with one child. Selected as a cosmonaut on December 1, 1978. Retired on February 9, 1989.
Flew as Flight Engineer on Soyuz T-4, Soyuz T-13 and Soyuz TM-5.
Has spent 252 days 17 hours 38 minutes in space.
First Flight: 10/9/1977
Last Flight: 3/12/1981
Vladimir Vasiliyevich Kovalyonok (Belarusian: Уладзі́мір Васі́льевіч Кавалёнак; Russian: Влади́мир Васи́льевич Ковалёнок; born March 3, 1942 in Beloye, Minsk Oblast, Belorussian SSR, is a retired Soviet cosmonaut.
He entered the Soviet space programme on July 5, 1967 and was commander of three missions. He retired from the cosmonaut team on June 23, 1984.
Type: Human Exploration
Soyuz T-4 was the 14th mission to visit the Salyut 6 space station and carried the EO-6 expedition, which was the final long-duration crew for the station. The mission began on March 12, 1981, 19:00:11 UTC, launching Commander Vladimir Kovalyonok and Flight Engineer Viktor Savinykh into orbit. They docked with the station the next day. During their 74-day stay on the station, EO-6 crew conducted various experiments, and were visited by Soyuz 39 and Soyuz 40 crews.
The mission concluded with a safe landing back on Earth on May 26, 1981, 12:37:34 UTC.
Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of Kazakhstan
1532 rockets have launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of Kazakhstan.
Soviet Space Program
The Soviet space program, was the national space program of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) actived from 1930s until disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991.
The Soviet Union’s space program was mainly based on the cosmonautic exploration of space and the development of the expandable launch vehicles, which had been split between many design bureaus competing against each other. Over its 60-years of history, the Russian program was responsible for a number of pioneering feats and accomplishments in the human space flight, including the first intercontinental ballistic missile (R-7), first satellite (Sputnik 1), first animal in Earth orbit (the dog Laika on Sputnik 2), first human in space and Earth orbit (cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1), first woman in space and Earth orbit (cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova on Vostok 6), first spacewalk (cosmonaut Alexei Leonov on Voskhod 2), first Moon impact (Luna 2), first image of the far side of the Moon (Luna 3) and unmanned lunar soft landing (Luna 9), first space rover (Lunokhod 1), first sample of lunar soil automatically extracted and brought to Earth (Luna 16), and first space station (Salyut 1). Further notable records included the first interplanetary probes: Venera 1 and Mars 1 to fly by Venus and Mars, respectively, Venera 3 and Mars 2 to impact the respective planet surface, and Venera 7 and Mars 3 to make soft landings on these planets.