Soviet Space Program
8/5/1941 - 6/14/2010
First Flight: 11/27/1980
Last Flight: 3/13/1986
Leonid Denisovich Kizim (Кизим Леонид Денисович) (August 5, 1941 – June 14, 2010) was a Soviet cosmonaut.
He was selected as a cosmonaut on October 23, 1965. Kizim flew as Commander on Soyuz T-3, Soyuz T-10 and Soyuz T-15, and also served as backup commander for Soyuz T-2. All together he spent 374 days 17 hours 56 minutes in space. On Soyuz T-15, he was part of the only crew to visit two space stations on one spaceflight (Mir and Salyut 7).
First Flight: 2/8/1984
Last Flight: 3/13/1986
Vladimir Alekseyevich Solovyov (Russian: Влади́мир Алексе́евич Соловьёв; born 11 November 1946) is a former Soviet cosmonaut.
He was selected as a cosmonaut on 1 December 1978 and flew as Flight Engineer on Soyuz T-10 and Soyuz T-15, spending a total of 361 days, 22 hours, 49 minutes in space. His first flight, Soyuz T-10, took off on 8 February 1984, to join Salyut 7. The crew spent ten months (nearly 237 days) performing numerous medical and space manufacturing experiments. They came down aboard Soyuz T-11 on 2 October 1984. Solovyov's second flight was aboard Soyuz T-15, taking off on 13 March 1986 and coming back aboard the same craft on 16 July 1986, 125 days later. During the T-15 mission, the crew transferred equipment from Salyut-7 to the new Mir space station; they were the last aboard the former and the first aboard the latter.
First Flight: 2/8/1984
Last Flight: 2/8/1984
Oleg Yur'yevich At'kov (Russian: Оле́г Ю́рьевич Атько́в; born 9 May 1949) is a Russian cardiologist and former Soviet cosmonaut. With a doctorate from the Russian Academy of Medical Science, Atkov was chosen to be the health specialist on board Soyuz T-10 and Soyuz T-11.
Type: Human Exploration
Soyuz T-10 was the third long-duration expedition to the Salyut 7 space station. The mission began on 8 February 1984, 12:07:26 UTC, launching Commander Leonid Kizim, Flight Engineer Vladimir Solovyov and Research Cosmonaut Oleg Atkov into orbit. They docked with the station the next day. During their 237-day stay on the station, crew performed various scientific and medical experiments, performed six EVAs for station maintenance, and were visited by Soyuz T-11 and Soyuz T-12 missions. Soyuz T-10, per usual, swapped vehicles with the Soyuz T-11 crew, which allowed for a longer stay on the station.
The mission concluded with a safe landing back on Earth on October 2, 1984, 10:57:00 UTC.
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Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of Kazakhstan
1540 rockets have launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of Kazakhstan.
Soyuz U – Russian Federal Space Agency (ROSCOSMOS)
- Family: Soyuz
- Length: 51.1 m
- Diameter: 2.95 m
- Launch Mass: 313 T
- Low Earth Orbit Capacity: 6900 kg
The Soyuz U was manufactured by Russian Federal Space Agency (ROSCOSMOS) with the first launch on . Soyuz U has 694 successful launches and 20 failed launches with a total of 714 launches.
Soviet Space Program – CCCP
- Type: Government
- Abbreviation: CCCP
- Founded: 1931
- Country: RUS
The Soviet space program, was the national space program of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) actived from 1930s until disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991.
The Soviet Union’s space program was mainly based on the cosmonautic exploration of space and the development of the expandable launch vehicles, which had been split between many design bureaus competing against each other. Over its 60-years of history, the Russian program was responsible for a number of pioneering feats and accomplishments in the human space flight, including the first intercontinental ballistic missile (R-7), first satellite (Sputnik 1), first animal in Earth orbit (the dog Laika on Sputnik 2), first human in space and Earth orbit (cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1), first woman in space and Earth orbit (cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova on Vostok 6), first spacewalk (cosmonaut Alexei Leonov on Voskhod 2), first Moon impact (Luna 2), first image of the far side of the Moon (Luna 3) and unmanned lunar soft landing (Luna 9), first space rover (Lunokhod 1), first sample of lunar soil automatically extracted and brought to Earth (Luna 16), and first space station (Salyut 1). Further notable records included the first interplanetary probes: Venera 1 and Mars 1 to fly by Venus and Mars, respectively, Venera 3 and Mars 2 to impact the respective planet surface, and Venera 7 and Mars 3 to make soft landings on these planets.