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Molniya 8K78

Strategic Missile Troops

Launch Status



Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of Kazakhstan

468 rockets have launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of Kazakhstan.

1/5, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of Kazakhstan


Molniya 8K78

Length: 43.44 meters
Diameter: 3 meters
First Launch: October 10, 1960

The Molniya was a modification of the well-known R-7 Semyorka rocket and had four stages.

The 8K78 resulted from a crash program by the Korolev Bureau to develop a booster for launching planetary probes. A larger third stage was added along with a fourth stage (Blok L) that was designed to fire in-orbit to send the payload out of LEO. The basic R-7 core was also structurally strengthened and given more powerful engines. A rushed development produced multiple malfunctions of the upper stages, which led to its being replaced by the improved Molniya-M in 1964, but there were enough 8K78s left to continue flying them into 1967.

The Molniya 8K78 rocket has been launched a total of 2 times with 1 successful and 1 failed launches.


Strategic Missile Troops

Abbreviation: RVSN RF

Country: RUS

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